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THE RESEARCH philology "Hikayat MUHAMMAD Hanafiyah"

By: Fahrudin HM, M.A.

A. Introduction
Malays literary history is full of noisy uproar in a variety of literary forms can not be separated from the teachings of Islam. Teachings of the Prophet Muhammad brought was spread in the territory of Malays through the role of merchants from other Muslim countries that previously knew this last divine religions. Furthermore, joints Melayu community life is colored by the teachings of Islam, not to mention the literature that has become the most important part of society Malays during this course. Contiguity and interaction with the community of Islam Malays are then gave birth to a variety of literary works. History later noted mengemukanya stories are nuanced Melayu Islam or books about Islam written by the authors of the Malays has always been a variety of study materials parties to the present.
One of the interesting work that generated considerable attention among the Malays in the era of classical authors is "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah". The story contained in this saga comes mostly from South India and is a specific event that has ever happened in history. Manuscripts scattered in various places in the world and various studies have been done by many parties to this saga. The following article tries to examine the manuscript is based on the classic story Melayu stage applied research in the study of philology.

B. On philological analysis "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah"
Philological review of the "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" becomes interesting because in addition to being one of the most popular stories in literary Malays, this saga is also a form of a high appreciation of the Prophet Muhammad and his family. High appreciation of the Muslims is not only limited praise, but even further into a culture that manifests itself in a variety of traditions that have one purpose, namely respect for the Prophet Muhammad and his family. One example of mengemukanya honor or commemorate the traditions of struggle and sacrifice of the Prophet and his family is a tradition in Pariaman and Taboot Tabuik in Bengkulu.
For the philological analysis of this saga, a set of steps needed to be done. The steps that must be done to analyze this saga by philology is the science of recording and collection of manuscripts, text-critical method, the composition stema, and reconstruction of the text.

B.1. Recording and Manuscript Collection
After doing a search, the authors conclude that the books containing the texts "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" is:
1. "A History of Classical Malay Literature", by Sir Richard Winstedt, Publisher Oxford University Press, published together in Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, New York, London and Melbourne in 1969. This book is available at Library of Faculty of Humanities (FIB), Gadjah Mada University Catalog No. 899 299 with Win h. Number of pages 323 and printed on yellow paper and in good condition. "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" found on page 265-273, but the details of this saga authors listed on pages 105-107.
2. "The History of Classical Literature Melayu", by Drs. Liaw Yock Fang, publisher of the National Library of Singapore, 1975. The number of pages as 351 with good condition and "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" contained in pages 135-137. While other information about the "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" that existed in this book can be found on page 135.
In addition to the above two books, other books that include information about the "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" exist in the writings of Henri Chambert-Loir, Les Manuscrits Malais de Bale, Lund, Singapour et Paris, Archipel Journal Volume 20, published in Paris, in 1980, pages 89-90. Other information about the "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" contained in this journal is Russel Jones article titled "Review Article: Problems of Editing Malay Texts; discussed with reference to the Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" that existed at pages 121-131. All articles related to "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" is in good condition and can be read clearly. The first paper written in French while the second article the author stated in English.

B.2. Method of Text Criticism
Although the book contains "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" consists of several papers, although a full load it there were only two books, as already mentioned above, but did not reveal any clear differences. Even further, book "History of Literature Melayu" which contains a summary of "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" mostly refers to the book by Winstedt above. This may occur because long ago, precisely in 1940, this Winstedt book became the only book that explores the exposure of the literary classic Malays.
Based on this, the authors concluded that the method of textual criticism applied to the "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" This is a combined method. Namely, the method used if the text kritikk manuscripts concerning the research object is considered almost the same and if there is no fundamental difference, and not too big and does not affect the text.

B.3. Stema Composition
The next step is done in philology is to arrange a review of the manuscripts stema object of study has been collected at the first stage above. As is well known that the main purpose of philological research on a manuscript is to obtain a pure script, or at least as close as possible to the original manuscript written by the authors. This is because the writing is in these texts is the idea and the author thinks that if we want to know that the author should be individuals who have the sole authority and high on ideas, not the commentators or penyalinnya.
However, because of differences in time very far distance, there is often not found in the original manuscript written by the author, but a copy made by people who are after. Can not be avoided in the process of copying there are differences from the original, either reducing or penambanhan. In conditions like this is necessary a third stage, that is compiling stema. The purpose of applying stema in philological research is to make the genealogical tree of texts that became the object of research.
Based on the collection of manuscripts at the first stage above, it can be arranged as follows:
 Script A: "A History of Classical Malay Literature" by Sir Richard Winstedt
 Script B: "The History of Classical Literature Melayu", by Drs. Liaw Yock Fang.

Manuscript A is the archetype of a parent script or manuscript source for the hiparketipnya B (subinduk) or a derivative of the manuscript A. Nevertheless, the manuscript of A which became the archetype of the manuscripts found in this study is derived from the manuscripts "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" in several places in the world. Chamber-Loir based search, the texts "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" there is in some places, namely at the University of London based catalog CJ Tornberg conducted in 1850, and at the National Museum of Singapore. While based on searches performed by P. Voorhoeve, "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" there is in the Library of the Netherlands Leiden University and comes from former Dutch Batavia Secretariat. Winstedt himself also notes that the manuscript "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" are also available at Cambridge University Library as many as 60 pages.
Based on the above explanation, it is known that the manuscript of A is translated by Winstedt back into English comes from the manuscripts "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" in London, Leiden, and Singapore. Furthermore, Liaw Yock Fang, translate and copy it back in his book "The History of Classical Literature Melayu" which was written in Bahasa Indonesian, so a script B.

B.4. Text Reconstruction
The next step in philology or the last assessment is to reconstruct a text that has been done the previous steps. The purpose of reconstruction of the text is to determine the errors inherent in the existing texts in a way to see what is in other texts. However, because the search results that I did it only found two manuscripts only then it can be difficult.
However, the authors can conclude that A is the original manuscript "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" or more precisely English translation of this classic tale Melayu. This is based on several factors, namely the script B is a summary of "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" that existed in the script A and no differences were found in both, while the second is the script of A is a very old book that has become the reference in the study of classical literature Malays. In addition, the author of the manuscript A is the recognized leader capability and capacity in the world of philological research.

C. With Cultural Relevance
As mentioned earlier that the Prophet Muhammad, his companions and his family occupy a respectable position among the Muslims. Respect for them is not only manifest in the form of words of praise only, but even further constructed in the form of culture. The existence of "Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" is one form of respect for the Prophet Muhammad, his companions and his family. The contents of the story explores the journey of life the prophet, even long before his birth in the form of light, the companions and his family. The story presents things and events that are expected to be able to summon something extraordinary as well as pride for his followers. As a depiction of the prophet first light was created before the creation of other human beings, the light on the forehead of his father, Abdullah, who later lowered the Prophet Muhammad and various other miracles. So also with the friends and family that he is struggling to uphold what they believe is the truth, even against fellow Muslims even to the death. This is as shown by Ali, Hasan, Husayn and Muhammad Hanafiyah.
One of the Prophet family struggles that are told in this saga is a tragedy that struck two grandchildren of the Prophet Muhammad, Hasan and Husain. Both were killed by the Umayyad regime under the leadership of Yazid ibn Mu "awiyah. Hasan was murdered by poisoning while Hussein and his followers were massacred in Padang Karbala, Iraq. Husein decapitated head heavy like criminals while the followers planted alive and then killed rollicking and their women taken captive.
Husein Karbala tragedy befalling its followers in the 10th Muharram 61 AH (681 AD), this later became a tradition which is celebrated by many Muslims, the main Shia groups, all over the world. In Indonesia, raised in the form of tradition in Pariaman Tabuik Taboot in West Sumatra and Bengkulu. This tradition is carried out by the society two regions are each dated 10 Muharram with a variety of ways that are meant to commemorate the suffering of the Prophet's family in Padang Karbala.
Tabuik tradition began on 1 Muharram by taking the mud in the river in the middle of the night by wearing white clothes symbolizing Hussein's body making such sacred white cloth was killed in Karbala. Then the collected sludge of Jakarta and was covered in white cloth and taken to a place (Daraga) are also covered with white cloth. Subsequently, on 5 Muharram done with a single banana tree felling blow a sharp sword that symbolizes the courage and tenacity in the fight Hussein. Next, right on 7th Muharram procession made objects made to resemble the fingers of Husain on the road to be disclosed to the public. On December 9th Muharram white turban was paraded on the street so that makes people hysterical to remember the struggle against Yazid Husain. On the 10th of Muharram is the top event with all the tools they moved the ceremony and the public simultaneously shouting "Hoyak Tabuik, Hoyak Hussein." In the evening sunset, objects used in this ceremony dilarung to the sea and the people went home, chanting "Ali Ali Bidaya Bidaya ... ... Yes Ali .. Yes Ali .. Husein .. and Yes. "
Meanwhile in Bengkulu, as in Pariaman, also held on the first of Muharram, but with a name which etymologically means Taboot city or crate wood. This tradition is a celebration of mourning or condolence on wafanya Husein in Padang Karbala. The ceremony consisted of the depiction of collecting body parts from the body of Hussein, and his funeral pengarakan in Padang Karbala. Besides being a tribute to the struggle of the Prophet Muhammad Husayn and families in general, Taboot ceremony also aims to foster a sense of hostility to the family of the Umayyads who had killed Ahlul Bait.

D. Conclusion
"Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiyah" tells the life of the Prophet Muhammad, his companions and his family in his life. This saga manuscripts scattered in many places around the world, especially the countries that make the study of classical texts Malays. Scripts contained in this book can be considered a script Winstedt closer to the truth the original manuscript, or rather its foreign language translation based on several factors supporters. What is told in the 'Hikayat Muahmmad Hanafiyah' as a tribute to the Prophet Muhammad, his companions and his family embodied in the tradition made by some quarters in Islam in many places, like in Bengkulu and Pariaman with the tradition and Tabuik Taboot.

Yogyakarta, Mid December 2009

Baried, Siti Baroroh. Et al. 1994. Introduction to Theory of Philology. Yogyakarta: National Research and Publications Section of the Faculty of Philology Faculty of Letters, Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta.

Chambert-Loir, Henri. 1980. "Les Manuscrits Malais de Bale, Lund, Singapour et Paris", in Archipel 20, Paris.

Directorate of History and Traditional Value Department of Education. 1991/1992. Taboot Ceremony: Traditional ceremony on the Municipality of Bengkulu Bengkulu, Bengkulu: Directorate of History and Traditional Value Department of Education.

Fang, Liaw Yock. 1975. History of Classical Literature Malays, Singapore: National Library.

Robson, S.O. 1994. Principles of Indonesian Philology. Jakarta: RUL cooperation Center for Language Development and the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia and University of Leiden, Netherlands.

Voorhoeve, P. 1980. "List of Malay Manuscripts Which Were Kept formerly at the General Secretariat in Batavia", in Archipel 20, Paris.

Winstedt, Sir Richard. 1969. A History of Classical Malay Literature. Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, New York, London and Melbourne: Oxford University Press.



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