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Ramadhan is a month. Named Sha'ban because the Arabs in the month yatasya'abun (split) to find the source of water. It was said, also because they tasya'ub (berpisah-pisah/terpencar) in caves. And also said to be a month because the month of Sha'ban sya'aba (displayed) between two months of Rajab and Ramadan. Plurality is Sya'abanaat and Sya'aabiin.

Shaum in the month of Ramadhan
From 'A'ishah quoted' Riders said: "It is the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi fast until we say he never broke. And he was not fast until we say he was never fast. I have never seen the Messenger of Allah fasting a complete month except Ramadan. And I never saw him fast more than the month of Sha'ban. "(Narrated by Bukhari No. 1833, Muslim No. 1956). And in Muslim history No.1957: "Is he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi fasting in the month of Sha'ban everything. And very little he did not fast in the month of Ramadhan. "

Some scholars including Ibn Mubarak and in others has merajihkan that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi never penyempurnakan Ramadhan fasting month but he has much to fast in it. This opinion is supported with a history in Saheeh Muslim, no. 1954 from 'A'ishah quoted' Riders, he said: "I do not know, he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi fasting the whole month except Ramadan." And in the Muslim history also No. 1955 from 'A'ishah quoted' Riders, he said: "I never saw him fast a full month since he settled in Medina except the month of Ramadan." And in Shahihain from Ibn 'Abbas, he said: "It is not the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa wa alihi sallam asatu full month in addition to fasting Ramadan. "(Narrated by Bukhari No. 1971; Muslim, No.1157). And Ibn Abbas hated to fast the whole month except Ramadan. Ibn Hajar said: Shaum he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi the month as a fasting Sunnah Ramadhan more than in other months of fasting in Ramadhan. And he is fasting to glorify the month of Sha'ban.

From Usama bin Zaid was quoted 'anhuma, he said: "I said:" O Messenger of Allah, I have never seen you fasting in a month from the months that there is such puasanmu in the month of Sha'ban. "Then he said:" That's the month human neglect him between Rajab and Ramadan. And is the month in which practice-practice appointed to rabbul 'alamin. And I like to lift my practice while I was in a state of fasting. "(Narrated by Nisaa'i, see also Saheeh Targhib wat Tarheeb pp. 425). And in a narration of Abu Dawud no. 2076, he said: "Month of the most beloved Messenger of Allah for him is the Ramadhan fasting then he continued with Ramadan." Classed as saheeh by al-Albani, see Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawud 2 / 461.

Ibn Rajab said: Fasting month of Ramadhan more than fasting in the month unlawful. And most of all sunna practice is close to Ramadan before and after. The position of fasting Ramadhan fasting among others the same as the position of prayer to pray fardhu rawatib sunna before and after, ie, as the lack of a mandatory falsifies. Similarly, before and after the Ramadan fasting. So therefore, the sunna sunna sunna rawatib greater than muthlaq in prayer then so too fast before and after the fasting of Ramadan is greater than that distance away.

Word, he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi: "Sha'ban month from her negligent man between Rajab and Ramadan", shows that when the moon is flanked by two months the great-month and month of fasting haram-man busy with the second month so that heedless of the month of Sha'ban. And many among humans assume that the more mainstream of fasting Rajab Ramadhan fasting month because Rajab is haram, but it is not so. In the hadeeth there are also signs that some of the good virtues that have distinguished the time, place or person can become a more mainstream it in others.

In the same hadith there are arguments disunahkannya turn human times negligent of him to obedience. As some of the Salaf, they like the switch between Maghrib and 'Isha prayers and with them saying it was time lalainya humans. And this kind of liked them dhikr to Allah ta'ala in the market because it is the negligence of dhikr in place between people who are negligent. And switch times of obedience from her negligent humans have several benefits, including:
Making the hidden deeds done. And hide and keep secret the sunna practice is more mainstream, all the more so fast because it is a secret between the servant to his Lord. Therefore it is said that there was no showing off her '. Most of the Salaf, they fasted for years but no one knows. They came out of his house to the market with two slices of bread membekal wherewithal and then both he himself fasted. And the family thinks that he has eaten and the people in the market think that he has eaten at his house. And the Salaf like to reveal things that could conceal his fast.

From Ibn Mas'ud, he says: "If you're going to fast then berminyaklah (polish lips with oil so as not to impress were fasting)." Qatadah said: "Recommended for people who are fasting to lose her impression of greasy fast."

Similarly, at the time that the righteous deeds are more severe neglect of the soul. And in between, because the virtue of a practice is the difficulty / severity of the soul because the practice if many people who do it will be easy, and if many are melalaikannya will be hard for someone who was awake. In Saheeh Muslim No. 2948 from bin Yassar Ma'qal hadith: "Worship me when harj hijarah crate." That is when the libel, because people follow their desires so that people who cling to implement the practice with difficult / heavy.

The scholars disagree about the cause has been the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi many fasting in the month of Ramadhan in few words:

1. He was busy from fasting three days each month because of Safar, or anything else. Then he gathered it and private lessons (fulfilled) in the month of Sha'ban. And the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam when alihi wa sunna practice a practice so he set one up and when he missed the private lessons.

2. It is said that his wives paying debt Ramadhannya fasting in the month of Sha'ban so beliaupun go fast because of it. And this is the opposite of what is to come from 'A'ishah that she ends a debt to pay for Ramadhan fasting until months after being busy (serving) the Messenger of Allah.
3. and said that he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi fast because of human negligence in that month from him. And this opinion is more powerful because of the hadeeth mentioned above Usama contained therein: "That's the month that humans fail him between Rajab and Ramadan." (Narrated by Nisaa'i. See Shahihut Targhib wat Tarheeb pp. 425).

And is he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi if entered while still remaining months of Ramadhan fasting  traditions that have not, then his private lessons in that month so that he Perfected sunna fasting before Ramadan-sebagaiman entry as if he miss-sunna sunna prayer or prayer night then he-private lessons. Thus' Aisha at that time to collect his sunahnya qadha'nya with fasting. So 'Aisha mengqadha' what is obligatory for him from the month of Ramadan because he was breaking because of menstruation and the other in the months that he is busy (serving) the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi. Then obliged to note and as a warning to those who still have debts to pay before Ramadan fasting before entering the next Ramadan. And may not be until after Ramadan ends next except for dharurat, for example udzur that continued until two Ramadhan. If anyone is able to qadha 'before Ramadan but not mandatory for him to do so in addition to private lessons after the previous repent to feed poor people every day, and this remark CEDAW Malik, Ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad.

Similarly, including the benefits of fasting in the month of Ramadhan is that fasting is an exercise for the fasting of Ramadan in order not to experience severe difficulties and when the time comes. Even so it can be used to enter the Ramadan in a state strong and vibrant.

And because it is an introduction to Ramadhan Ramadhan then there is also practice-practice that existed at the Ramadan fasting, reading the Qur'an, and shadaqah. Suhail ibn Salamah said: "It has been said that the month of Ramadhan is a month of Qurra '(readers of the Qur'an)." And is Habib bin Abi Thabit entered the month of Sha'ban when he said: "This month the Qurra' . 'And' Amr ibn Qays al-began to enter the month of Sha'ban when he closed his shop and spend some time (specially) to read the Qur'an.

End of Ramadhan fasting month

Has Thabit in Shahihain from 'Imraan ibn Husayn that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam wa alihi said: "Do you fast on sarar (last) month?" He said: "No." Then he said: "If you break the fast then puasalah two days. "And in the history of Bukhari:" I think that means is the month of Ramadan. "While the history of Muslims:" Do you fast on sarar (last) month of Sha'ban? "(narrated by Bukhaari, 4 / 200 and Muslim No. 1161).

There has been a difference in the interpretation of the word sarar in this hadith, and which distinguished it means is the end of the month. And it is said sararusy syahr with sin or memfathahkannya mengkasrahkan and memfathahkannya this is more true. Sarar dinamakn end of the month because istisrarnya months (ie, hidden moon).

If someone says, has Thabit in Shahihain from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa wa salla alihi, he said: "Do not you guys ahead of Ramadan by fasting a day or two days in advance except those who are accustomed to fast then puasalah." (Narrated by Bukhari No. . 1983 and Muslim no. 1082), then how do we compromise suggestion to fast hadith (Hadith 'Imran ibn Husayn said) with the hadeeth of this prohibition?

Said most of the clergy and the pensyarah hadith: Verily those who are asked by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi was already known by the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam wa alihi that he was accustomed to fast or because he has nadzar so ordered to pay.

And it is said that in this problem there are other opinions, and the sum that at the end of the fasting month of Ramadhan there are three circumstances:

1.Berpuasa with the intention of Ramadan fasting as a form of prudence might have entered the month of Ramadan. Fasting like this is haraam.

2.Berpuasa with intent nadzar or mengqadha 'Ramadan ago or pay kafarah or the other. Jumhur allow such scholars.

3.Berpuasa with the intention of fasting normal sunna. Group which requires the separator between Sha'ban and Ramadan to break their hate such things, among them Hasan al-Basri, although accustomed to fast-but Malik rukhsah (waivers) for people who are used to fasting. Ash-Shafi'i, al-Auzai ', and Ahmad, and in others split between people who are not familiar with.
Overall, the hadith of Abu Hurairah tadilah used by most scholars. Namely hated precedes Ramadan by fasting a day or two days sunna for those who do not have the habit of fasting, nor is preceded by fasting in the month of Sha'ban constant concatenated to the end of the month.

If someone says, why fasting before Ramadan this directly hated (for those who do not have the habit of fasting before)? The answer is because of two things:

First: in order not to increase the Ramadan fasting during Ramadhan is not included, as prohibiting fasting on feast day because of this reason, as a step hati-hati/peringatan of what happened to the scribes with their fast ie the fast they embroider them on the basis of opinion and their desires. On this basis then dilaranglah yaumusy fasting on suspicion (the day of the doubt). Umar said: Anyone who fasted on the day of doubt then he has to engage in immoral to Abul Qasim sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi. And today is the day of doubt that doubt him whether or not that includes Ramadan due khabar about've seen the new moon of Ramadan but this khabar rejected. The yaumul ghaim (overcast day so as not to be seen whether the new moon had appeared or not it is among the scholars who make it there as a day of doubt and berpuasaa forbidden to him. And this is perkataaan most scholars.

Second: Distinguishing between sunna and mandatory fasting. Lo distinguish between fardlu and sunna is allowed. Therefore diharamkanlah fasting on feast (to distinguish between the compulsory fasting of Ramadan by fasting in the month Syawwal the sunnah). And the Prophet forbade to connect with compulsory prayers by praying sunna to be separated by a greeting or conversation. Moreover qabliyah Fajr sunnah prayers (Shubuh) then disyari'atkan to be separated / distinguished with compulsory prayers. Therefore is prescribed to be done at home and lie down shortly afterwards. And the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wa alihi when I saw someone was praying qabliyah then qamat blown, he said to him: "Is it four cycles of prayer shubuh?" (Narrated by Bukhari No.663).
Perhaps some people are ignorant to think that breaking the fast (not fast) before Ramadan is meant to be able to satisfy all desires (to satisfy lust) in the case of food before the advent of prohibition with fasting. This is incorrect / wrong and is the ignorance of people who berparasangka like that. Allaah ta'ala knows best.

Maraji ': Lathaaiful Ma'arif Limawasimil fi ma' Aami minal Wadhaaif, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali.
Al-bi Ilmam Syai'in min Ahkamish Only just again exactly, 'Abdul' Aziz Ar-Rajihi.

(Translated from an article entitled Haula Syahri Sha'ban in www.islam-qa.com by Abu Omar Abdurrahman Munawwir)

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