Nuzulul Qur'an (Koran decline) is a very special thing for Muslims. As the Qur'an is a great blessing for this Ummah, the Qur'an nuzulul also a huge blessing for this Ummah.
The majority of Indonesian Muslims in the Koran believes nuzulul falls on 17th of Ramadan. Even many who held a special event to commemorate the Koran nuzulul annually.
In the Qur'an, Allah hath spoken nuzulul Qur'an in the following three paragraphs:
شهر رمضان الذي أنزل فيه القرآن هدى للناس وبينات من الهدى والفرقان
(Some days are determined it is) the month of Ramadan, the month in which reduced (beginning) of the Qur'an as a guidance for mankind and the explanations of the clues and differentiator (between right and falsehood). (Surat al-Baqara: 185)
فيها يفرق كل أمر حكيم
Verily We have it down on a blessed night and We it is Who gives a warning. (Surat Ad-Dukhan: 4)
إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر
Verily We have it down (the Qur'an) on the night of glory (Laylat al-Qadr) (Surat Al-Qadr: 1)
As QS. Al-Baqarah verse 185 above, some verses of the Qur'an is a parrot (qualifier) for some other verses. There is no contradiction between the verses of the Qur'an.
أفلا يتدبرون القرآن ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافا كثيرا
Do they not consider the Qur'an? If it seems that the Quran is not from Allah, they would have found therein much contradictions. (Surat An-Nisa ': 82)
Similarly, the three verses (Surah Al-Baqarah: 185, QS. Ad-Dukhan: 4, and QS. Al-Qadr: 1) explaining the Qur'an nuzulul above. All three are not contradictory. However, contrary to paragraph dzahir historical reality, in which the Qur'an was revealed to Prophet for 23 years. In this case the scholars are divided into two main schools, and two other schools as follows:
First of Koran schools Nuzulul
The first schools of this is the opinion of Ibn Abbas and a number of clerics, which then became views jumhur scholars'. That is nuzulul Qur'an in verse 3 is the decline of Al-Quran as well as to the Baitul Izzah in the sky world. This is to show how great his angels this problem. Then, the Qur'an descended gradually over 23 years. 10 years old when the period of Meccan sura, and 13 years in the period Madaniyah.
Evidence used to strengthen these schools are:
1. Words of Ibn Abbas:
"Al-Qur'an down all at once into the sky world on Laylat al-Qadr. Then he was sent down for twenty years" (Narrated by al-Hakim, Bayhaqi, and Nasai). Then Ibn Abbas read His Word:
ولا يأتونك بمثل إلا جئناك بالحق وأحسن تفسيرا
It is not unbelievers come to you (bring) something odd, but We bring thee a right and the best explanation (Surat al-Furqan: 33)
وقرآنا فرقناه لتقرأه على الناس على مكث ونزلناه تنزيلا
And the Koran had been revealed to us gradually in order that you read it slowly to humans and we lowered it section by section. (Surat al-Isra ': 106)
2. Words of Ibn Abbas:
"Al-Qur'an was separated from Adz-Dzkir, then placed in the Baitul Izzah in the sky world, then started down to Gabriel Prophet" (Narrated by al-Hakim)
3. Words of Ibn Abbas:
"God of the Qur'an down all at once into the sky world, the center of Al-Qur'an decrease gradually. Then God down to His Messenger, piece by piece" (Narrated by al-Hakim and Bayhaqi)
4. Words of Ibn Abbas:
"Al-Qur'an descended on the Laylat al-Qadr in the month of Ramadan to the sky world as well, then he lowered gradually" (Narrated by Thabrani)
Both of the Koran schools Nuzulul
Schools are both about nuzulul Quran narrated by Amr bin Ash-Sya'bi Syarahil, (a big Tabi'in, experts of hadith and fiqh, the teacher of Imam Abu Hanifah, who died in 109 H) that is meant by nuzulul Qur ' in three of the above verse is the beginning of the decline of Al-Quran began on Laylat al-Qadr in the month of Ramadan. Then fell gradually over 23 years.
Thus, there is only one kind of the way down according to these schools, which is gradually to the Messenger of Allah as stated in the paragraph:
وقرآنا فرقناه لتقرأه على الناس على مكث ونزلناه تنزيلا
And Al-Quran was sent down with a gradual in order that you read it slowly to humans and we lowered it section by section. (Surat al-Isra ': 106)
Polytheists who were told that the book down at once celestial earlier, want al-qur'an also down at once.
وقال الذين كفروا لولا نزل عليه القرآن جملة واحدة كذلك لنثبت به فؤادك ورتلناه ترتيلا * ولا يأتونك بمثل إلا جئناك بالحق وأحسن تفسيرا
Said those who disbelieve: "Why did not the Qur'an revealed to him very down right?"; So that We may strengthen your heart with her and we read it in Tartil (regularly and correctly). It is not unbelievers come to you (bring) something odd, but We bring thee a right and the best explanation. (Surat al-Furqan: 32-33)
According to Shaykh Al-Qaththan Manna, both schools of Ash-Sya'bi narrated, with the proposition saheeh and this is acceptable, does not conflict with the schools first. Furthermore, Shaykh Al-Manna said Qaththan strong opinions is the Qur'an descended twice: first, reduced at once to the Baitul Izzah on Laylat al-Qadr, and second, the world descended from heaven to earth gradually over 23 years.
It was narrated from Ibn Abbas, he was once asked by Athiyah ibn Aswad: "In my heart there are doubts about the word of God 'was the month of Ramadan in which descended the Qur'an', and the word of God 'we are down on Laylat al-Qadr'. Whereas Al -Qur 'an was revealed in the months of Shawwal, dzulqa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram, Shafar, and Rabi-Beginning. " Ibn Abbas replied: "Al-Qur'an descended on Laylat al-Qadr once. Then lowered gradually, little by little and fragmented and slowly throughout the month and day"
Third on the Koran schools Nuzulul
That is the opinion of Al-Qur'an revealed to the world at 23 the night sky glory (Laylat al-Qadr), which is on every night there was the glory of God destined for reduced every year. Of the total for the whole year is then reduced gradually to the Apostles throughout the year. This results partly mufassir ijtihad. This argument has no argument.
Fourth of Koran schools Nuzulul
Namely the notion that the Qur'an revealed first gradually Lauh Mahfudz, as He says:
بل هو قرآن مجيد * في لوح محفوظ
Even those who denied it was a noble Qur'an, the (stored) in Lauh Mahfuzh. (Surat Al-Burooj: 22)
Then to the Baitul Izzah simultaneously, then go down little by little in 23 years. Thus according to these schools of the Qur'an revealed in three stages.
According to Shaykh Al-Qaththan Manna, this opinion was not contrary to the two principal schools, because the prior written down to the Baitul Izzah, the Qur'an is stored in Lawh Mahfudz as QS. Al-Burooj paragraph 22 above.
First Date of the Qur'an was revealed to Prophet
Al-Qur'an was first revealed to the Prophet is the letter of Al-'Alaq (Iqra ') in the famous cave Hira. Regarding the date, the scholars have a lot of opinions from each other there is also a berselish far. Some said the months of Rajab and others say the month of Ramadan. But the truth is the month of Ramadan as QS. Al-Baqarah verse 185.
From the opinion of this Ramadan, divided again into several opinions. Some say the date of 7, part of the opinion dated 17, and there is also an opinion dated 18. Shaykh Al-Mubarakfury Syafiyurrahman after doing research, said in Rahiqul Makhtum that the first revelation of the fall on Monday, August 10, 610 AD, coinciding with the month of Ramadan. In the month of Ramadan, the day falls on Monday 7, 14, and 21. By basing the argument that the Qur'an was first revealed on Laylat al-Qadr, and there on the night of Laylat al-Qadr odd last ten days of Ramadan, Al-Mubarakfury Syafiyurrahman conclude that the Qur'an was first revealed to the Messenger of Allah on Ramadan 21 date.
Thus an explanation of the Quran Nuzulul according to various schools, may be useful. Bish shawab Wallaahu knows best. [Joint Da'wah, Source: مابحث في علوم القران work of Shaykh al-Qaththan Manna, رحيق المختوم works of Shaykh al-Mubarakfury Syafiyurrahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Tafsir Fi Zhilalil Quran]