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Ramayana, The Story That Never Old

Title           : Hikajat Seri Rama
Publisher  : Balai Poestaka
Year          : 1938
Thickness : 256 pages

RAMA and Sita (Sprott) is a couple who came from the Ramayana epic. In the process of traveling from his native land, both these figures have changed from the original version of the form of a story loaded with local content in which the story develops. Actually the story of the Ramayana is not just a love story like Romeo and Juliet, but a drama-filled life of ideals, moral values, portrayal of social conditions, culture, and politics.

This is what happened with Hikajat Rama Series published by Balai Pustaka in 1938. Oral tradition that carries the story of the Ramayana to the archipelago in the 13th century it was usually performed by a narrator or storyteller in a show.




Since the 16th century, another genre of text translation "beautiful" or literature between Javanese and Malays happen. That is what happened with the epic Ramayana. The story was never published PP Roorda van Eysinga in 1843, and has published in the magazine Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, April 1917. WH Rassers, a linguistics expert who wrote a PhD dissertation East De banner of the Roman (1922) revealed that Hikajat Seri Rama, Rama Keling, and puppet plays purwa which tells about the same as Rama Rama Rama Kekawin and fiber compositions Valmiki or something called Valmiki .

However, the oral tradition was not able to keep the story exactly as the original. Social environment and then adapted by the narrator makes the story of Ramayana is full of local content. This was never revealed by the published WG Shellabear epic Ramayana in 1957. According to him, the story was not written by Valmiki in accordance with Islam because it looks strong influence in the story. While the Ramayana story Balai Pustaka published writings are the result of PP Roorda van Eysinga.

Actually, since when the Ramayana was written? No one knows for sure. Rough estimates between 1500 BC to 200 BC. A report Press Trust of India, published by the Ananda Bazar Patrika newspaper on December 24, 1980, revealed that if the results of investigations conducted Ahmedabad geologists can be trusted, the Ramayana can not be older than 2800 years.

In Hikajat Seri Rama Dasaratha Maharaja narrated about the country Boga Ispaha who has five children from two wives. The first wife had children climb Mandoe Seri Rama and Lakshmana. While the concubine of Balia have three children, namely Tjitradana, Kikoewi Goddess, and funding. As an adult, told Dasaratha Rama Series set as crown prince. However, at the insistence of concubines, finally Tjitradana who should be king. Series until Rama should be exiled to the forest and accompanied by his wife, Goddess Sita, and brother, Lakshmana. In a series of Rama's exile and Lakshmana fighting with Soera Pandaki, Ravana's giant brother women. Losing battle to ask his brother Soera Pandaki to kidnap Sita Dewi.

The story published by Balai Pustaka is adapting the story from India is to be charged with the language of local and Malays, like the dialog that appears when Sugriwa met Rama: "Do toeanku Sjah natural hambalah named Soegriwa, brother Maharadja Balia (Vali), king of all apes , beroek, lotong, and koekang gibbons, king of the country Lagoer Katagina ".

Writer India, P Lal, translated from the original Ramayana Valmiki in Sanskrit into English, entitled The Ramayana of Valmiki in 1981, then translated back into Indonesian by Djokolelono in 1995. P Lal tried to abbreviate the original work of Valmiki became a third, but he does not expand, adapt, interpret. However, what he did was to shorten the road to stick to editing the original Sanskrit texts, though he admitted that his own abridgment kind of interpretation. In the epic translation shows that P Lal Valmiki was a major poet, many dialog antartokoh poetically expressed with a good writing style. While the book Hikajat Seri Rama, the oral tradition still looked strong in it. His writing style that tells the reader feel as if there are storytellers who bring the story orally.

In this paper narrated Lal P, Dasaratha, King of Ayodya, had four sons by three wives. The eldest of the empress Kausalya, Rama, Lakshmana and Shatrughna then from the mother Sumitra, and Barata of the king's favorite wife, Keikayi. By the old age, Dasaratha decided to crown Rama as crown prince. However, the plan was changed because of Dasaratha had promised to make the son Keikayi, Barata, as his successor. For fear of going struggle for power, so Rama was banished to the forest for 14 years. Accompanied by his wife, Sita, and brother, Lakshmana, Rama left Ayodya. those in exile, Lakshmana and Rama fought with Sarpakenaka, brother of Ravana, and his nose cut off by Rama. Because of these losses, Sarpakenaka persuade Ravana to kidnap Sita until done. Ravana was adamant about not going to return Sita to Rama to the battle occurred.

SEEM epic Ramayana has incarnated in various forms in Indonesia. This is evidenced by the existence of Ramayana in the language Kekawin Kawi (old Javanese), which is in macapat story. Macapat is written poems tell of life with a high philosophy. Macapat also part of Java since the oral tradition conveyed orally singing or commonly known as nembang. Kekawin Ramayana Translation was done by the Provincial Primary Education Office Bali province of language Kawi (old Javanese) into Indonesian and published in 1987. This book is still uses the original form macapat in Latin characters and provided a translation.

There is another epic Ramayana, written in 1976 Sunardi DM derived from the book Ringgit Purwa Padhalangan Fiber Volume 36 and Volume 37, then combined with the genealogy stories contained in books written by Raden Arjuna Sasrabahu Ngabehi Sindusastra Weltevreden Balai Pustaka published in 1930. The writer himself calls the story of Ramayana is the version made Indonesia a free translation of the Ramayana Kekawin.

Indonesia nuances of illustrations place looks like the following quote: "Blessed is Rama saw his wife, Princess Mantili, it was fun always chasing dragonflies or butterflies, picking flowers, or sitting under shady trees while listening to the birds prenjak , thrush, and cocak Twitter bersahut-replication ". In addition, the impression of Java are felt here, as Anoman (Hanuman) is extremely good at macapat hummed, and the book still contains some macapat.

There are fundamental differences about the origins of Sita, in Hikajat Series Sita told Rama is the son of Ravana who disposed of when the baby because she did not want a daughter. While the version of P Lal, Sita made similar Sunardi told DM that Sita was the daughter of Janaka Mantili country.
Apart from the Ramayana in fiction writing romance, RA Kosasih make the Ramayana epic in comic book form and make the Indian story is very Java with oral language and costumes of the characters dressed as the kings of Java. Since the 1980s until now, this puppet comic still in circulation and popular society. (Umi Kulsum / R & Compass)

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