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History of Arabs

We should know even a little bit the situation of the Arabs before the coming of Islam, because the nation Arablah initially accept the Islamic religion.

Before the coming of Islam, they have a variety of religions, customs, morals and rules of life. This new religion was to bring morals, laws and regulations of life.

It makes this new religion came to the nation that is not a new nation. So Islam met with ignorance religions, the Islamic rules with the rules of the Arabs before Islam. Then there was the fight that a lot of time consuming. These contests can only go into, if we have to have knowledge and experience Sekedarnya, about the life of the Arabs, before the arrival of Islam.

This way we also need to wear, when we want to describe the entry of Islam into Indonesia, Egypt or Syria. We must know the circumstances Sekedarnya these countries before the advent of Islam, because our knowledge tentanghal it will help us to know clearly how the way each country welcomed the Islamic religion.

Arab Bagsa as we shall explain later, a portion is divided into two, namely: population and population of the desert country.

History of the Arab population of the desert almost unknown people. What can we know from history that began their hanyalh of approximately fifty years before Islam. As for which prior to that it can not be known. That is because the desert Arabs pasiritu population consisted of various tribes who always fought wars. Wars were at the origin caused by the desire to maintain life, because only the strong who alone is entitled to have places where water and pastures where cattle graze. As for the weak, he just has the right to die or become slaves.

Wars were spending time and energy, and therefore they do not have the time and opportunity to think about culture. And if among them can work, create and enforce a culture, other people came to fight and meruntuhkannya.

And again, they are illiterate. Therefore, their life history and Nor written.

So, no bengunan-building that can describe their history and there are no texts that can explain the history of that. As for who comes to us about those ancient times, was told by the scriptures. Their history, begun by the hundred and fifty years before Islam, we can know through the medium of poetry or stories received from the transmitter-transmitter.

The history of the Arab population of the country, is more clear. Their countries are: a portion south of the Arabian Peninsula, and Ghassan Hirah kingdom, and some cities ground Hejaz.

EARTH SCIENCE Arabian Peninsula

Jazirarah in Arabic means the island, so the "Arabian Peninsula" means "Island of the Arabs".

By the Arabs of their homeland called peninsula, even though only three of the three departments be limited by the sea. That is a figure of speech (not true).

Some historians have called the Arab lands was "Shibhul peninsula" which in the Indonesian language means "peninsula".

If the note be seen that the Arabian Peninsula was rectangular, which no sides are parallel.

In the west bordering the Red Sea, south of the Indian Ocean, on the east by the Arabian Gulf (formerly called the Persian Gulf) and in the north to the deserts of Iraq and Desert Sham (Syrian Desert). Over 1000 Km in length, and width of about 1000 Km.

If one of its citizens, or of his followers were persecuted people or their rights violated, then it becomes incumbent upon the tribes or tribal avenge.

Therefore, it often happens kalilah wars between tribes with other tribes. These battles sometimes continues until some derivative (fil Arab Ajjamul al ustadz Djahiliah Maula Djada'l cs).

To honor and respect the Kaaba which was visited by the Arabs from all over to do Hajj and 'Umrah, then dilaranglah war or launch attacks on several months of the year, namely in Zulqaidah, Zulhijjah, Muharram (in the months that they on the pilgrimage) and Rajab (this month they perform 'Umrah).

However, sometimes very heavy by the desert inhabitants of tigabulan stop peperangandalam respectively, therefore sometimes the month of Muharram which they exchange with Safar, then they fight bolehkanlah month of Muharram and Safar month they were forbidden; this action they christened " of rice "(resignation).

The Arab population of the desert-brave brave. Bold means a very prominent trait in them. Courage is generated by their circumstances as narrated by Ibn Khaldun (Al Prolegomena, 125).

"They always have to carry a weapon. And often alone in pesawangan or in the desert. No one will protect at the time, only the courage of their own".

Because of living in the desert all difficult, not as in the countries, the Arab population of the desert always disrupt and attack the people of the land. Therefore the population of the desert is seen as the barbarians who can not be conquered or controlled by the people of the land (Al Prolegomena: 121).

Properties of the desert and its inhabitants as mentioned above, causing the center of the state - that is part of the Arabian Peninsula in that - not known by the travelers and writers. At a time when Islam came and has spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula, the desert people began streaming into the cities, so they told fairy-life in the desert.

The characteristics of the desert as mentioned above, causing the desert inhabitants escaped colonization.

Bedouin nation has never held an important role in the commercial launch of the world, ie before digging the Suez Canal. Red Sea at that time had not been used for shipping, because many berpulau-island. So the Bedouin population of the desert that is what works unite trade between Asia and continental Europe through the Arabian Peninsula. Lin-lin trade they have neatly arranged and carefully.

System of government in the nation that is the system Bedouin tribes. Msing each tribe chose a chief who would they follow. Selected to be the head of a tribe is a person who has the qualities that most venerated by the Arabs, namely: a brave, generous, and trustees.

But the head is not always adhered to them, because it has become nature also for the Bdui, like bebasdan independent in a broad sense of the word.

A Bedouin often rebelled against a decision issued by a head terhadpanya. So ditinggalkannyalah kabilahnya, then fled, so he remained in their independence. In such circumstances, kabilahnya no power to do something for menundukannya.

PUBLIC-AFFAIRS

YEMEN

Yemen is a country grows temapt the most important cultures that have grown in the Arabian Peninsula before Islam came.

Yemen words derived from the word "Yumn" which means "saying" (Yaqut: Mujamul Buldan on "Yemen". See Pula Encij of Islam article "Yemen") is named so, because in this country a lot of blessings and goodness.

Yemen country Makmur because the land fertile. Too much rain down there. Son of the country made dams and water dams. Son of the country made dams and water dams, so that the existence of dams and water dams, the rain water can be used denganbaik; and also the cities and villages and their crops no flood affected in the rainy season . Yemeni resident ever greater role in the commercial launch of the East and West.

Conversely, the factors mentioned were also the cause of their nasab no longer pure; their language to be corrupted, because many people, the merchants from India, Sumatra, China, Egypt and Syria came to their country there is no escape from colonialism, which was launched by neighboring countries are more powerful and who have the ambition to conquer.

Because of stability and a prosperous life, it has been born in Yemen, the kings who had a crown and palace big. When the birth of a powerful king, submit the entire country of Yemen to him. He was followed by the small kings and by the regional heads in all regions of Yemen, even one bow to Hadramaut.

However, in the weak, the country of Yemen is divided into areas which often fought wars and hostile enemies.

Among the important kingdoms that had once stood in Yemen are: Kingdom of Ma'in, Qutban, Saba 'and Himyar.

Ma'in kingdom stood circa 1200 BC, and the Kingdom of Qutban stood circa 1000 BC. Qutban Kingdom so this is what pengawa Mandeb Strait of Bab el. However, things concerning the kingdom is very little known.

Finally both collapsed, and stand above the ruins kerobohannya kingdom of Saba '.

KINGDOM OF SABA '

Kingdom of Saba 'started up 950 years S.M. first is the establishment of a small kingdom; then grow large and spacious, while the kingdom of Ma'in and Qutban smaller and weaker, finally collapsed and inherit the kingdom of Saba '; Handruamaut was incorporated as the kingdom of Saba' is. Kingdom of Saba 'stand 115 years S.M.

Sheba fame 'base be based on two reasons:

    1. Famous queen named Queen Bulqis. Bulqis story of this queen of Solomon and the birds are hud hud in the Quran (20-44 Naml twist, and look also at Tabari I: 345 to 350).

    2. Ma'Rib Dam, which is one of the famous dam in history. Bendunganini built by the architects of Yemen who specializes in the science building. This dam is a huge dam can hold back the water in between two mountains. Water that can be used in times of need. With the existence of this dam the villages, gardens and crops in the low lands can be preserved from dangers of flooding that often occurs in the rainy seasons.

Such a giant dam, of course, must diawai, maintained and repaired. However, because the kingdom of Saba 'was experiencing weakness in the final time, then again Nor can they maintain and improve it. Finally, this giant dam was damaged and can no longer fight the flood, flood, especially the so-called "Sailul Arim" told by God in the Quran (Saba letter paragraph 16).

Arim this Sailul life in Yemen menebabkan experienced major changes. Residents forced to flee Yemen akegian northern Arabian Peninsula, because the great flood that had swept the country and drowned them. This is what caused the collapse of the kingdom of Saba 'and bangunya Kingdom Himyar.

HIMYAR KINGDOM

Himyar Kingdom of Sheba stood since 'starting weak. Weaknesses kingdom of Saba 'provide an opportunity for the kingdom of Himyar to grow rapidly until Himyar can mempusakai Kingdom Sheba'.

Their power had become too big. Told that their troops had roamed up to Iraq and Bahrain.

However, this kingdom also finally experiencing weakness. They fail to improve and control dams and water dams that. Therefore, dams and water dams are torn down by the flood and flood. Ma'rib Dam no longer defensible. Giant dam collapsed. Ma'rib dam Kerubuhan resulted from the earth segian they do not get the water they need more, while others foundered in the flood. This disaster led to their flock fled to the north of the Arabian Peninsula.

Therefore, Yemen became weak. And the weakness that paved the way for the kingdoms of Persia and Rome to interfere in the internal affairs of Yemen with the intention to have the country's fertile and prosperous.

Kingdom of Saba 'and many left Himyar traces and relics that can describe the greatness and progress achieved by the kingdoms in ancient times.

These kingdoms also had a large fleet to carry trade goods from India, China, Sumatra to Somalia hand and the ports of Yemen. Commerce on this Lin virtually monopolized by them.

From Yemen trade goods are carried north by the caravans which are also controlled by Yemen, which is before the center of these caravans to Mecca as a move that will be explained later.

YEMEN colonized

We imagine the above, that the fertility and prosperity of the country of Yemen, mnyebabkan two big imperialist empire at that time, the Persian and the Roman Empire, vying for control. There are other reasons that led the country immediately fall prey Yemen Imperialist countries, namely religious peergolakan happened in the country.

A king of Yemen, namely Zu Nuas, embraced the Jewish religion. His action was followed by some of his people. In Najran northern Yemen is the religion spread AD. Zu Nuas was worried that the influence of the Roman Empire and Habsyl will spread to Yemen through the medium of religion AD, when the country of Yemen at that time (to the V century AD) is going through his weaknesses.

Zu then ordered to the population Nuas Najran to choose between the two, which embraced the Jewish religion or be killed off. Najran population was killed off was determined to let the trade of their religion with the Jewish religion. So Nuas Zus diperintahkanlah by digging a trench. Najran residents were killed and burned by Zu Nuas in the ditch.

There was one of them can escape. This person went to the country Habsyl (Ettipia). To Negus also profess AD, menuntutkan defense requested that the AD, who murdered and burned alive by Zu Nuas.

For this, the Kingdom Habsyl cooperate with the Roman Empire. Roman ships provide the necessary and the Kingdom of the army Habsyl provide.

Then they attacked the country of Yemen. The attacks to win, and Zu Nuas suffer defeat. Then putting spurs to his horse into the sea and karamlah him in the sea.

Thus, the country fell under the rule of Yemen Habsyl.

Commander of the army Habsyl named Aryath, and aides named Abraha. Aryathdibunuhnya and thus the power into the hands berpindahlah Abraha. Abraha died after the power is held by his son named Yaksum, then by Masruq.

Nor have the Persian empire heart melihatkan Yemen country colonized by the Romans Habsyl and that. Finally came the opportunity for him to intervene. Dikala ie one of the descendants of kings named Himyar ibn Saif bin Yazin Zi ran into Persia, to ask for help out the people of Yemen Habsyl. The request was allowed by Khusraw (king) of Persia. Dikiriminya troops to Yemen. Persian army was successfully removed from the Yemen Habsyl imperialism. Then the position of the nation in Yemen Habsyl replaced by the Persians. They took over the nation Habsyl, after Saif ibn Yasin was killed, and their Master's fully Yemen country.

Kisra appoint a governor to rule in Yemen in his name.

At times Muhammad sent a messenger, the governor of Yemen is Bazan. He only just influence over Yemen. Many areas in Yemen, no other influence, still only have kings or chiefs of the nation calling Arab.Nabi Muhammad Bazan to embrace Islam, the religion dianutnyalah this.

KINGDOM AND Ghassan HIRAH

There are several Arab tribes settled in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Tribes are often disrupt the kingdom Persiadan Romawi.Kerapkali wild attacks they did, to seize what they can steal. Then they fly that spoils the Arabian Peninsula inland. Persian army, as well as Roman soldiers, of course mengjar momentum they could not, mainly because the road to the interior is very difficult, and found it difficult sir.

Therefore, by the Persian empire and the Roman Empire sought a hajiz (wall) that will protect the country from the Persian and Roman attacks. For this purpose they are collected by several Arab tribes who tela they know, who previously moved from the country of Yemen, and their place in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, south of the Persian and the Roman state. These tribes-tribes by those equipped with weapons and given the money. Tribes-tribes are familiar with the ins and outs and mazy streets and twists and turns throughout the Arabian Peninsula. They could also inhibit the attacks from the tribes of the Arab nation. Thus Manadzirah kingdom stand under the protection of the Persian empire, which served to protect the Persian Empire. In addition, also stood Ghassanah Kingdom under the protection of the Roman Empire in charge of protecting the Roman Empire.

KINGDOM HIRAH (MANADZIRAH)

History began Hirah Emirate since the third century AD, and continued to stand until the birth of Islam. Kingdom has also contributed to Arab culture, as many citizens made trips across the Arabian Peninsula, especially for berniaga, in the meantime they also broadcast the writing and reading skills. Therefore they can be regarded as a science broadcaster in the Arab Peninsula.

Among the famous kings were: Umru ul Qais, Umru ul Nu'man ibn Qais (who founded the palace and the palace Khawarnaq beginning Sadir in the fifth century AD), Ibn Mundhir Ma'is Same ', Amr ibn-Hind (also known as 'Amr ibn al-Mundhir Ma'is Same "named Hind (Hind) it is his mother) and Mundhir Nu'man ibn al-Mundhir. Mundhir Nu'man ibn al-Mundhir this is the last king. In this king's reign of Khalid Ibn al-Walid Hirah combat, and finally Hirah country joined the Islamic government.

KINGDOM Ghassan (SHASASINAH)

Ghasasinah name was drawn from a spring in which the Ghassan Sham. The Ghasasinah ruled in the south of the country in the Levant and north of the Arabian Peninsula. They already have a high culture, too, and AD profess that he received from the Romans and they who put it into CE religion Arabian Peninsula.

Among the kings who is well known: Jafnah ibn 'Amr, Arkam ibn Tsa'labah, and Jabalah ibn Aiham. Ibn Jabalah this Aiham last king. In the reign of this Jabalah battle of Yarmuk and the introduction of Islam to this region. According to the story, this Jabalah had converted to Islam, but then he ran into apostasy and the Roman state in a famous incident that occurred in the reign of Omar Ibn al Khattab.

Between the Kingdom of the kingdom Mandzirah it always happens Ghasasinah turmoil, mainly due to disputes over the ship's boundary, the Kingdom of the political running Manadzirah run by the Persian empire, as a political run Ghasasinah kingdom run by the Roman empire. Because of the Persian empire to the Roman Empire was hostile, then when the war happened between the Persian empire and the Roman empire, kingdom, of course, standing Manadzirah Roman empire.

Therefore the kings of the kingdom of Ghassan Hirah and it is of Yemeni descent, is in the field of culture and way of life, they keep the style and traditions of Yemen. As an example can be made two huge palace made by the king Hirah, with palaces mencontih Yemen, which is famous in history under the name "AlKhawarnaq", and "As Sadir", which has been mentioned above.

Kerajaa-royal service is the most important thing is: they have a role in broadcasting various Persian and Roman culture to the Arabian Peninsula. They are like a bridge through which the procession culture of Persia and Roman country on his way to the Arabian Peninsula.

Among the types of culture were: religion, general science, literacy, science, army and others.


H E A D Z

Hejas - unlike the Arab countries other - have been able to maintain its independence. Hejaz country never colonized, occupied, or influenced by foreign countries.

It may be caused by the location and the poverty of his country, so there is no desire to lead other countries to menjajahnnya. Perhaps, too, because since the time of the Hejaz was Abraham has become the Kaaba for the Arab nation. They work together to maintain, keep the country's independence, and colonizers-occupiers away from him.

Previously we mentioned that the history of the Hejaz be in this country know very closely associated with religions and holy books. Therefore, in following the growth of this life in the Hejaz, in addition to cling to the history books, we also will take materials from the Quran and Hadith al-Hadith of the Prophet.

MAKKAH, THE HOLY CITY

There is a beautiful story narrated by Bukhari regarding the lake of Zamzam. Below we list the summarized as follows:

   
MAKKAH, THE HOLY CITY

There is a beautiful story narrated by Bukhari regarding the lake of Zamzam. Below we list the summarized as follows:

Ibrahim arrived with his son who was a baby, which is Ismail, and his mother. They were both placed on a spot near the lake of Zamzam is now. To be a stock for the two men had been left by Abraham a small bag containing the fruit were carved, and a jar of water, and he set off to return. Ishmael's mother then called out "Where are you, O Abraham? Will you leave us alone in this valley?"

Because Abraham did not turn, then Ishmael's mother asked: "Did God tell you to do this!"

"Yes!" Ibrahim replied.

"Then of course he would not waste us?" Ismail's mother said again.

After a few days ago, makana be finished and water left the Prophet Ibrahim. Finally, Ishmael's mother's milk dried up. Ismail's mother and a dog running between the hills Safa and Marwa hills, to see if there are people who can give them food and drink. Seven times he came running dog. To commemorate this event Ismail mothers who do the pilgrimage dog ran seven times between two hills.

On the seventh time by the mother looked Ismail angel incarnated as a bird was pecking the ground with his beak. So out of water in that place. According to another report of water near the foot memancardi Ismail, when it was hit-hantaminya dengankakinya when he cried.

That he Zam-zam lake, a lake that becomes the main cause for the prosperity of this place. As is known the water in the desert is the source of life. Where there is water there is life and there is prosperity. Moreover, the emergence of water-mentioned manner, cause this place is getting kind of sanctity in the eyes of the Arabs. They came to the place to watch a child under the soles of her feet springs emanated. They try to drink the water that poured in honor of babies who are breast-feeding it.

Not far from where it is located the city of Mecca. The city is located approximately in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula. This location is good, cause it became a way station for trade caravans. After mamncar spring of Zam-zam pond, the houses of Makkah had reached near lake.

Once, Ibrahim came to the Hejaz to see his son. Then be seen by him how his son became a great honor, and how people from every corner of the Arabian peninsula arrived there. Therefore Abraham together with his son was building the Kaaba, in order to be a place to do syi'ar religion of Abraham, This is what is told by God in the Quran.

Ka'batul musyarrafah or Bailtullah it is also called Baitul 'Atiq, a cube bebentuk building. Built in the broadest part dilembah it. 15 meters high. The length of the west didingnya each about 12 meters. On the east didingnya therein that Ka'bak door. In the corner of the Kaaba is the southeast side out there Hajarul Aswad. He was the highest from the ground about four feet. From that starting Hajarul Stone thawaf.

When the Prophet Abraham built the Kaaba was finished he cried to the Lord:

"Our Lord! I've put some of my offspring in a valley of no-tanama planting near your house is respected. Oh god we were, so they establish worship. So human hearts tend to them, and give them rezekilah fruit crops. " (Ibrahim 37)

God has allowed this prayer of the Prophet Abraham, and ditunjukakanlah by God to fantasize how it was meant to happen. Says the Lord:

"Tell us humans to do the pilgrimage they will come to thee on foot, or wait for the vehicle's thin - because of travel away from each distant country." (Al-Hajj 27).

Then notified and human diserulah by the Prophet Abraham to do the pilgrimage, and they also allow the appeal. So since then berdatangankah people from all over and from the various countries in the world to Mecca to perform Almukarramah Pilgrimage.

In the Kaaba's first religious ceremonies performed. However, because many people who came to Mecca and many people on the pilgrimage, the place was a little narrow.

Therefore, the Arabs agreed to use part of the land around the Kaaba was to place a religious ceremony, and they view it be to place, hence the place they call the "Sacred", That is where the exalted. Dikala come and pray to Islam disyari'atkan, then the prayer is done temapat, so therefore it dinamailah "Masjidul Haram".

Government in Makkah

Makkah city is a place considered sacred by the whole Arab nation. Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula throughout the city came to Mecca to perform Hajj or Umrah. Therefore, during the whole Arab nation to war in one word prohibit months pilgrimage, which Zulkaidah, Zulijjah, and Muharram. So too in the month of Rajab, because in the month of Rajab, many do umrah. The months mentioned that they named "Asyhru'l Hurum" (The months of banned).

Similarly, they have agreed to ban fighting in the Haram Makkah. This attitude is a kind of agreement made by the agencies that hold the government in respect of the Arab land of Makkah.

Makkah city itself since the morning had been well known rule. Among the tribes who had held power in the famous Mecca is Amaliqah tribes, namely before the Prophet Ishmael was born.

Then came all the tribes of Mecca Jurhum and they settled in Mecca, with Amaliqah tribes. However, tribes can beat kemusian Jurhum and drive Amaliqah tribes and Mecca.

Jurhum days of Ismail's rule came to Mecca. Ismail consists in Jurhum educated in an environment, and then married with one daughter from Jurhum.

Because the city of Mecca has become a place considered sacred by all the Arabs, then the government stood there to protect pilgrims flock, and ensure the security, safety and their peace.

Apparently, a division of labor has occurred between people Jurhum and Ismail, namely: political affairs and the war held by the people Jurhum, was Ismail berkhimat devote his energy to the House and religious affairs.

Jurhum people then have to be rich, because they have been immersed in the pleasures of life, and they forgot to duty. Therefore Khuza'ah think the tribe who also had settled in Mecca to seize power from Jurhum.

Mudhadhim ibn 'Amr al Jurhumi one of the leaders Nor Jurhum able to convince those orangJurhum it, and felt that they were weak. Therefore, he left Mecca departed together his people. Also joined together they the sons of Ishmael.

By Mudhadhim ibn 'Amr before meninggalakn Makkahtelaga Zam-zam ditimbuninya the ground. After leaving Mecca berpindahlah Jurhum power into the hands Khuza'ah, namely in the year 440 AD

This Qushai Darun Nadwah founded, to a place of discussion for residents under the supervision of Makkah Qushai. He is also the governing matters relating to the Kaaba, namely:

    1. As Siqayah (Providing drinking water).

       Because of Zam-zam lake has been backfilled with soil, it is very difficult to obtain Makkah (Zam-zam lake was later dug up by Abdul Mutthalib)

       Therefore the water to be drunk by the congregation, pilgrim must be brought by a person who holds siqayah affairs of spring-spring located in places far away. Water is placed in the bath-tub and interfered little with the dates and dried grapes that taste sweet.

    2. Ar Rifadah (Menyediakanmakanan)

       For pilgrims who were unable to be provided food. Usually the Quraysh gave some of their wealth to Qushai, in order to provide dipergunakannya pilgrim makananbagi disadvantaged.

    3. Al-Liwa '(Flag)

Ie keep the Kaaba, and holding the key.

Ruling Quraysh in Makkah until the coming of Islam. During that four types of business that was held by the sons Qushai alternately, until finally held by Abdul Raullah SAW Mutthalib grandmother.

Year of the Elephant

Several years before the Prophet Muhammad was born, the land conquered country Habsyl Yemen. Among the governors who had ruled in Yemen on behalf of the king Habsyl, a man named Abraha. This Abraha dikala noticed how the Arabs of Mecca to glorify the country, and they memeperhatikan throughout berdatangandari Arab land for pilgrims at the Kaaba, it occurred olehnyahendak mendirikansebuah larger buildings from the Kaaba, and was about to call the Arabs to confront the faces and places visited that. Then didirikannyalah a large church, and that the Arabs dianjurkannya Hajj worked there. But the actions and recommendations that lead to anger in the Arab nation.

One of the Bani Malik Ibn Kinanah rose, while vowing that he would merudakkan church. So this guy came to Yemen, and enter into the church he had to pretend to worship. At a time when night and day has orangpun no longer in the church, furniture dirusaknyalah church, and diubarnya walls with excrement.

Abraha knew what happened, the next day. It is said, that there is an Arab spend the night there and he was the alleged acts do it, then swear he was going to demolish the Kaaba. Then he set with a large army composed of soldiers who Habsyl army didahuli by bergajah. Then he stopped not how far from the city of Mecca.

Mecca's ruling today that is Mutthalib Ibn Abdul Hashim, grandmother of the Prophet Muhammad. Abraha seized belonged to Abdul the camel who was released Mutthalib Abraha place to stop it. By Abraha was called Abdul Mutthalib, to come to him, after Abdul Mutthalib come, Abraha said to: "I came to Mecca is not to attack you, just wanted to destroy the Kaaba. So if you block it then you mean I'm fighting. And when you no way, I too will shed no blood, "word Abraha was answered by Abdul Muthhalib:" We never are able to block what you mean. Only I ask you that you return all that you steal untaku it. " Abraha then said: "I was very reluctant at the time you first see. But now that you talk to me, no more your price in my view. Are you just talking camel with me, and I forget the Kaaba, was he is your religion, and religion Nenk fathers? " Abdul Mutthalib replied: "Will the camel, which I have, as for the House that he was having the care of God."

In the meantime, Abdul Mutthalib submit to a third Abraha Tihamah property, provided he came back and did not destroy the Kaaba means continue. However, Abraha remains to destroy the Kaaba it.

So Abdul Mutthalib back to Mecca, and he tawaflah around the House as he mentioned several kalibait poems, and the people who are equally tawaf he joined with repeating the poem, namely:

"O Lord, our Nothing but thy wishes!

O God! Slamatkanlah of their attack your home!

Your house is the enemy of people who were hostile to you. "

Prayer is Mutthalib Abdul diperkenenkan by God. Al Quranul Karim has told how the consequences suffered by Abraha was dantentara elephant in the holy verses:

"It is not you know, how the Lord has an army bebuat to have the elephant? Tiadakah made him their intrigue become futile? And sent him to those birds flocking: the throwing of stones meeka with hard ground . So they made Him smithereens, like leaves of plants that have been dimamah. " (Surat al-Fil)

Events bergajah soldiers is a significant event in the history of the nation

Arabs, so they make the events of importance to the elephant, and elephants in the year that Prophet Muhammad was born. (Ibn Qaiyun: Zaad Ma'ad I: 17)

Hejaz Cities Other than

Apart from the city of Mecca, there are several fruit diHejaz cities, namely Ta'if, Yathrib and others, but these cities are not semahsyur Mecca. Therefore the holy city of Mecca is considered, then the city ahead of the cities other, and life is more stable there.

Al Quran gives the name to the city of Makkah with "Umm al Qura" (mother country). The name is to imagine the position of Mecca higher than cities other. Says the Lord:

"And Al quran is a book that we sent down, a happy person, who confirmed the books before, and that thou mayest admonish a people of Umm al-Qura and the people who welcome (whole Earth population)."

QURAISY Commerce

We have Tell the about commercial activities in Yemen in the kingdom of Saba 'and

Himyar. In the narrative that we have explained that they include commercial trade in

sea and on land. The sea trade to India, China, and Sumatra; and trade in land is in the Arabian Peninsula.

After the country colonized by the Yemen Habsyl and then by the Persians, the people, the colonizers were able to control the sea trade. However, trade in the Arabian Peninsula residents moved into the hands of Mecca, because the colonizers-that - as we have explained - once again no control over parts of the Arabian Peninsula.

There are factors that help Mecca can play a role in commerce. Especially is the people of Yemen who had moved to Mecca, and they have extensive experience in the field of commerce. In the meantime, the city of Mecca, from day to day getting famous after the Kaaba was built, and pilgrims flock-even berdatanganlah from all over the Arabian Peninsula each year. The situation is very respected Quraish caused by the Arabs, let alone respect and service to the congregation Quraysh Arab land, between North and South that had been strengthening the factors mentioned it. Moreover, their ground state which causes dry and barren like to go abroad for population berniaga, as a business major, and the most important source for their livelihood.

Thus Quraish trade is active, and get fame and great progress both in and outside the Arabian Peninsula.

From San'a, and the port cities in Oman and Yemen, caravans of the Arabs brought perfume, incense, silk cloth, metal goods, leather, weapons, and spices. Commercial goods mentioned have produced in Yemen, and some are imported into the port cities were from Indonesia, India, and China. By caravan, the caravan of this stuff brought to Sham markets. Minyakk fragrant incense was so in demand behavior in these countries. In the back, caravans were carrying wheat, olive oil, rice, corn and textiles from Egypt and Syria.

As the Quraysh's trade traveling from east to west, to connect between Bahrain and the straits Persian (Arabian Gulf) on the one hand with Habsyl mnelalui Sudan and Red Sea on the other hand. The trade goods in Lin's most important is the pearl of Persia released from the strait and spices brought from Habsyl

There were four sons of Abd Manaf who always held the fourth commercial travel is always the most important place visited by the caravans of Quraysh, as stated above.

They were: Hashim trip to the country to Sham Sham Habsyl Abdu, Abdul Mutthalib to Yemen and the Persian Nawfal. Quraysh merchants who berniaga to these countries is under the protection of the sons of Abd Manaf was the four of us, so no one dared bother them. (At-Tabari II: 12-13, Snabikudz Dzahab fi ma'rifati qabailil Arabic II: 215)

However, a more orderly way and the more vigorous is the way to the north in the summer, and to the south of the cold season. Because of that, then it tells the journey in the Quran as follows:

"Because the Lord has used the Quraysh, which they used to travel in winter and in summer, because it let them worship the Lord this Kaaba, which had been feeding them at the time of hunger and secured them from fear." (Surat Quraish)

Traveling in winter it is to Yemen, and in the summer to Sham.

According to the history of At-Tabari that Hashim Ibn Abd Manaf was originally set for the Quraysh travel in winter and in summer. Although it is believed by historians that before Hashim had been there for berniaga also travel to the north and south, but since the regular is regulated by Hashim.

Many among the Quraysh who have gained huge profits from this trade, for example: Anu Sufyan, Al Walid Ibid Mughirah and others. And besides this material profit they make a profit of morale, which is due to their perjalananyang journey lakukanuntuk berniaga, they can learn the state of the countries where they berniaga it, whether in politics or in social fields.

This has led to an evolution of the mind that causes them not isolated from the culture in sekitanya, namely in the north and south of the Arabian Peninsula.

Social Life in the Arabian Peninsula

The above discussion is intended to explain the political life of the Arabs. But in it was already tucked important reviews relating to social life, which needs to be explained when explaining political life. In the discussion below we want to specialize the discussion of the most important aspects of social life sebelumIslam Arabs, because this kind of discussion is very important to understand the Arab stance against the Islamic religion, they dikala addressed to this new religion.

ARAB poem

There are two ways, in studying Arabic poetry in the Jahilia, both were very big gain.

    1. Studying the poem as an art, which by the Arabs is very appreciated.

    2. Studied with the intention of the poem, so that we can know the customs and manners of the Arabs.

Below we will hold a brief review of Arabic poetry in the jahilliyah, according to both the mentioned aspects.

Poem is one of the most beautiful art is very respected and venerated by the Arabs. They are very fond gathered around the poet-poet, to listen to their poetry, as people today trooped around the poet or a good music player, to listen to the game.

There are some markets where poets gather, namely: the market 'UKAS, Majinnah, Zul Majaz. Market-the market and making his verse poets who have prepared for that purpose, surrounded by tribal people; the praise and feel proud of their poets.

Chosen among the poems were the best ones, then hung in the Kaaba is not far from statues of the gods of their idol.

A poet has a very high position in Arab society. When on a nomadic tribe emerged a poet then berdatanganlah delegates from tribes, other tribes, to congratulate the tribes that. For tribes that hold this event-event and a big feast, with slaughtering cattle. Tribes women out to dance, sing and play music.

All this is held to honor the poet. Because the poet tribes to defend and maintain the verses, he was more than a hero who defended with the tip of the spear kabilahnya. Besides the poets can also captured the events and occurrences with the words. And if there are poets of other tribes denounced kabilahnya, then he would retaliate and refuse-reproach reproach it with verses too.

One of the effects of poetry on the Arabs is: That the poem can be used to exalt the humble, or vice versa, can insult someone who was hinakan noble. When a poet who was praised a despised, then suddenly that person instantly becomes noble and critical when a poet or a curse that was glorified, then with that person immediately becomes despicable.

As an example we can mention here Abdul 'Uzza ibn' Amir. He is a living death at first. Daughter-daughter a lot, but there are no young men who want to marry them. Then he was praised by Al A'sya a great poet. Poems containing Al A'sya praise broke everywhere. Thus mashyurlah Abdul 'Uzza it; livelihood for the better, then the youth berebutanlah daughter-daughter's hand in marriage.

There was a human being censured by the poet Hassan ibn Thabit, it becomes their base-hinalah.

Poet Al Huthaiah praised a group of people. They feel proud of the compliment Al Huthaiah it, as if to compliment Al Huthaiah was a certificate that they can be from one college.

That is the poem and thus his influence! Sekaranginginlah we want to describe the poem as an art that has described the life, manners and customs of the Arabs.

According to the discussant, poems from poets who lived period jahilliyah become the most important sources for the history of the Arabs before Islam. Poems can describe the life of the Arab nation jahilliyah period. He is the source for the history of the Arab nation, as the pyramids, temples, obelisks, obelisk and the writings on goods tersebutmenjadi source for ancient Egyptian history.

People who read Arabic poetry, will see the life of the Arab nation is clearly illustrated in the poem. He will see the desert, the camps, right-place game, and water resources. He will hear the word said leaders of men and women. He will hear a horse and clanging swords.

Will relate to her poetry wars, customs and manners of the Arab bagsa.

From the poem we will know that among the Arabs there are people who already know the "God", even though watsani belief is growing in time. Some people drink forbidden or denounced chamar (wine). And that one of them is the traditional custom of marrying the wife after the father's father died. And that they had known THALAQ, and many other things, that jahilliyah Arabic poetry is the source to find out.

RELIGION

Historians of religion argue that the man in his character like religion. Instinct like religion and like to think of God, always look in every human society.

Therefore, if the public found out rogue elements or groups of people who deny the existence of God or trying to eradicate the religion, it means that those who have instincts against themselves. And rarely melawani and also those who deny their own instincts were for some reason.

There perlainan opinion among the historians of religion of determining the circumstances that helped the growth and development of the religious instinct.

Some of them argued that the religious instinct will grow and develop, when the mind has developed and has high intelligence, if humans had reached the stage can be thought of herself, how she had made, the forces and powers of what is in him that , how he could see and hear and so on:

"And (also) in your own - there are signs of God - are not you noticed?" (Adz Dzariyat 21).

And can think about the surrounding nature, the heavens and the earth.

"Did they not see the camels, how be? To the sky, how exalted? To the mountains, how enforced? And to the earth, how to spread out?" (Al Ghasyiah 17 to 20)

Are some others argued that the religious instinct is to grow and develop, where the difference of natural phenomena seem very clear. Where people feel weak to deal with natural phenomena that, so it has wanted to ask for help or ask for protection to the natural phenomena it. Thus as primitive man; dikala they saw the rain, wind, disease, death, wild animals, they feel their weakness, so therefore dicarinyalah protection.

In accordance with the circumstances that helped to grow and memperkemban religious instinct, then the Arabs took his position among the nations of religion.

Those who tend to think that the first opinion, that the religious instinct is to grow and develop in which the heart found peace, because in such circumstances that there is a chance for reason to think.

Are the people who tend to kesua opinion, argued that the religious instinct to grow and develop, where people are in a narrow upheaval in nature. Where is she always faced the difficulties of life. These people argue that the religious instinct of the Arabs, caused by the circumstances of their lives.

In the meantime, the Arabian Peninsula drought is actually new, when compared to how long humans have been there on this earth.

Scientific investigations have shown that the Arabian Peninsula - which is now a barren desert - is the earth that was once fertile and verdant, who had menganugrahkan the population of various kinds of wealth. Therefore may be very religious feeling has arisen in the era since the Arab bngsa mentioned.

We say that, because of very strong religious spirit of the Arab nation, this is real and no doubt, and can be seen every day.

This religious spirit becomes one of the reasons that pushed them to fight and to fight against the Islamic religion of Islam dikala come. They are fighting the Islamic religion, because they are very strong fight with the old religion, the belief has been ingrained in them. If they are indifferent to a particular religion let alone Islam, who is about to memluknya dipeluknyalah, and who is not, whatever. However, the incident was not their fight Islamic demikian.Agama furiously, until they lose.

Until now, even the Arabs, whether he was a scholar or an ignorant, very passionate about his religion, religious disiarkannya and defended it as hard as his strength.

In Indonesia, I noticed an Arab from Hadramaut, Tionghoa Indians, and among these nations, peoples Arablah very passionate about his religion, and who actively Tionghoa broadcast and when the Indian nations far richer than them.

In the meantime do not forget that what we mean by the religious spirit in here, is the spirit of religion generally. As for worship and religious work, Bedouin Arabs, had long felt bored and irritated against him, because they view it as binding independence.

They're very loving to live free of dead bound by anything.

Often happens in religious fraud. There are among men who worship trees. There is also a worship the stars, as no less also the worship of kings, animals and stones.

However, can not be denied that the worship of the first in kenalmanusia since the time of Adam the worshipers of Allah the Almighty God. Because the worship of Allah is the human soul peaceful.

The Arabs are one of the nations that have received instructions. They follow the religion of Prophet Abraham, after Abraham escaped from his people who want to burn it with fire, because he denies and against their gods.

But the Arabs following the Prophet Abraham iagama then back again to worship idols. They make idols of stone and enforced in the Kaaba. Thus the religion of Abraham with confidence mingled watsani stir, and almost watsani belief that religion can beat Abraham, or religion really has defeated Ibrahim watsani belief.

OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS TO PROPHET IBRAHIM

WATSANI


There are various opinions about how the migration of Arabs from the religion of Prophet Abraham to trust Watsani. May be among the opinions that are closer to the truth is spoken by Ibn al-Kalbi yitu:

Which eventually led to the Arabs to worship idols and stone, is a nobody who left the city of Mecca selalumembawa a rock, saris siambilnya stones in the Haram Kaaba, in order to respect the sacred, and to show their love for the city of Makkah .

Thus it became obvious how the religion of the Prophet Ibrahim had mixed with kepecayaan Watsani.

In the circumstances of this darkness is also found among the Arabs were the people who harass and do not like to worship idols. They among others are: Waraqa ibn Nawfal, Uthman ibn Huairis, Jahsh and Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Zaid.

Usman Warakah and finally embraced agam AD. Abdullah remained in doubt until the arrival of Islam. At a time when Islam came, then dianutnya, but later abandoned, and also religious dianutnya AD, as the spread dimasanya, but nothing satisfied his soul with idolatry, and the Islamic religion is also not born again in awktu it, therefore he be seen as a who created his own religion. Dijauhinya idol, Nor he wanted to eat carrion and blood, and he cried to his people:

"O kaumQuraisy! For the people in power over me no more of you who are still fighting for the faith of Abraham, apart from me".

He also frequently called upon the Lord, and said:

"O God! Kalu would I have to know the face you love most, I call upon you with perantaraanya. But I know nothing"

Among those who did not want to worship idols is: Umaiah ibn Abish and Quss Shalt Sa'idah ibn al Iyadi.

As of the most important idols that are worshiped by the Arabs, is "Hubal". This Hubal akikk made of red stone, the human form. That is their greatest gods. He was placed on the Kaaba.

Besides, many more idols others, including the important:

Al lata, place in Ta'if, according Tsaqif (population Ta'if) Al lata is the most ancient idols.

Al 'Uzza, his place in the Hejaz. Kedudukannyasesudah Hubal.

Manah, the place near the city of Medina. Manah is glorified by Yatsib population.

Both also note that the Arabs worshiped these idols are as intermediaries to God, so in reality is not that the idols they worship.

"You Nor worship them, just so they menghampirkan us to God sehampir-hampirnya" (Az Zummar 3)

To get closer to the gods, then by the Arabs presented to the victim-koraban of cattle. Even at one point they also have human mempersembahmkan as koraban to the gods.

Abdul Mutthalib events that nearly slaughtered his son, Abdullah called for a koraban to the gods - as we shall later Tell the - indicates that the human being as koraban offered to the gods ever done by them.

They were also used bertenung, and saw fortunes to the gods. Bilaman a job to do something meaningful, for example to travel, or married, he went to the Kaaba to bertenung and see the gods opinion on the job. The interpreter is sorcery House guards.

In addition to the worship of idols, the divine religions too have never entered the Arabian Peninsula before Islam came. Above we have been Tell the king of Yemen who called Zu Nuas. We have also mentioned that this king's Jewish religion. Zu Nuas accept the Jewish religion of the Jews who moved to Yemen.

In the iti on Yatsib, Khaibar, Wadil Qura and others there are also people that the Jewish religion. They may come from Palestine, or they are Arabs who had embraced the Jewish religion

CE religion has ever entered the Arabian Peninsula. We have also mentioned above about the AD Najran who were destroyed by Zu Nuas. Ghassan there in the CE, as well as the country time in Yemen, Yemeni nation under Ethiopia, Religion AD comes into the Arabian Peninsula is from Syria, Egypt and Ethiopia.

However, the Jewish religion and AD Nor Arab.Yang broke ground as well due to the Jewish religion diskiriminasi according bagsa is a religion of the Jews "a nation of choice '

Arab Kendatipunseorang has embraced the Jewish religion, but he Nor will get the same rights as Jewish descent Yahuda.

Nor therefore the Arabs are willing to embrace a religion that will menempatkannyapada a degree below the degree of caller-caller religion itself.

As for religion AD, Things have been met by the beliefs that complicated, difficult by the Arabs to understand the brain. Also been met by a fierce dispute, which resulted in matters of religion itself becomes blurred, and make the Arabs who want a religion that is ultimately turn away from it.




L U K E A R G A

Nor can a discussant determine a family system that is used by the tribes-Arab tribes. Because custom-tribes tribes were sometimes very much different. That is caused by a system of tribes, who have made a nomadic tribe as a whole which has a customs and its own character, which may be very much different from the customs and manners of the tribes, other tribes.


However, there is a phenomenon that can be said clearly visible in each tribe. These are: customs guard and defend her, and her honor at a higher price than the soul, property and children multiplied.

The women themselves had, often also able to use their opportunities on the battlefield to infuse the spirit of fiery to the men who were fighting.

On Dzi QAR battle between the tribes of Persia Bansa Bakr tampilah a woman from Banu Doom sing a song for menghasung men who were fighting, so they fought desperately.

In the song he had on behalf of a friend-the theme of women who pledge to grandiloquent kaumlaki men who were fighting it. The promise will be fulfilled if they win, and were threatened if they lose. The singing was changed in a poem which reads:

"If you can defeat the enemy, we cuddle.

We spread out the rug

But if you are lost, we got divorced.

Divorce as a man who never loves "

Not infrequently also awards to women has been perverted and exaggerated until a disaster and led to acts which gave shame and a stain. As an example may be mentioned here the events 'Amr ibn al-Mundhir Mais Same'. 'Amr was a ruling (the king) in Hirah. Once, he asked the people who are both sitting with him: "as far as you all are there in this Arab lands who are reluctant to serve my mother's mother? No one, they said, could only be 'Amr ibn-Kulthum".

So by 'Amr Ibn al-Mundhir with her mother who named Hind entertained' Amr Ibn Kulthum with her mother who named Laila bint Muhalhil. His mother whispered to eat and drink at a time when his mother later told Laila asks for help to get it for dishes and so on.

Hind dibisikan run as a child was, but Laila said: "Each one should take what she needs!"

Hind asked once again to Laila to help him. But Laila wise what people mean to him, and it seemed to him that the feelings and honor offended, then he cried out: "The humiliation! Humiliation!"

His cry was sounded by his son. So he jumped from his seat and seized the chance of a sword hanging on the wall, then kill 'Amr Ibn al-Mundhir with the sword.

From this story, which we put in here with a brief, it can be readers to imagine the status of women in Arab nations are represented by Hind and Laila. From this story we can see the sharpness of the Arab women's feelings, as reflected in her. Look also how a word that describes Laila her anger has resulted in the deaths of a king.

One symptom of the desire exaggeration to keep the woman is always respectable: custom to bury daughters alive, because it was feared would be stained or in an enemy prisoner.

But the habit of killing these girls Nor, of course, become customary for all the Arab tribes, there is only on while Bani Asad and Tamim.

About family coaching, it usually is by the ordinary. That is the man who wanted to woo women to his family dikawinnya. Bial proposal is granted, then dibawanyalah her to his home and place of marriage.

Also has a habit of asking a woman's mind first, before she married.

Literature books and many historical events menceriatakan Aus ibn Haritha with the three sons, when he was approached by Al harit mothers' Auf, to propose that one daughter.

Aus called the oldest daughter, and her proposal submitted Arab royalty.

Daughter expressed beberpa 'disgrace on himself. And between him and Al-Harith no kinship or considered by Al-Harith was not also a neighbor of his father, which would cause him to feel ashamed to refuse pinangannya.

Further, his daughter said: "I'm afraid I'll dicerikannya; it's certainly not good for me".

Aus called the middle daughter. He also rejected as repulsion old brother. Finally Aus youngest daughter called. He received the proposal. So diceritakanyalah by his father that his brother who both had been refused, and explained why the brothers had refused saudaranay. Then said the youngest daughter was "However, for the sake of Allah, my face is beautiful, I do a lot better. Pekertiku Budi was fine. Even my father is also high as a nation". Bertanyala his father: "Do not you fear divorced?" Questions were answered his father: "if I dicerikan, although the nature-nature as mentioned it, Nor he will be blessed by God". So by Aus dikawinkanlah him with Al-Harith was.

With attention to this story we can also know that the Arabs had known it was too THALAQ.

Has become a habit for them that THALAQ it in the hands of men. A man holds the right to hold his wife or divorce her. However, there are certain women who want no diperistri, if not the right to divorce was held by them. Among Salma bint 'Amr of the Banu An-Najjar. Salma is the mother of Abdul ibn Hasjim Mutthalib.

There's more of a habit of the Arabs, that is not going to marry off their daughters to foreigners (who are not Arabs).

Ever wanted to Khusraw Persian memingang one of the daughter of the king Mundzin Nu'man ibn Hirah.

The women do not want to desert pendduk mated to the country. For example, we may call Maisun wife of Mu'awiah ibn Abi Sufyan and the mother of Yazid ibn Mu'awiah. Maisun not stand living in luxury in a palace in the city of Damascus is beautiful. Jiwany always longed to camp, and his free digurun sand.

To bear her heart he wrote a long Qasida, including:

Wearing 'rough aba'ah but my heart happy, I like lenih than using a smooth-smooth

Winds of bread crumb in the house that was more like a hill higher than mahligai

Mamakan crumb of bread in the house had collapsed, more than I like to eat fresh bread

When Mu'awiah know this dikembalikannyalah his wife to his village in the desert.

Jahilliyah period the number of wives in the Arab nation no limited. In fiqh books mentioned many examples of pre-Islamic people who take more than four people. There is a wife among ten people. This person was told to choose among four wives and divorce the rest.

Very Arabs liked having boys. Their prayers at a time when marriage is: "Beer rifai wal banin". (Hopefully fit, and many boys) and is an obvious thing that the son of man that became pillars of the family and the pole.

Arab women become friends and a good helper for her husband, because he has a variety of intelligence that led to intelligence intelligence setarf with her husband. He was a good shepherd, sing, recite poetry, dance, spinning yarn, weaving cloth and making camp. All this can be done by an Arab woman, besides his duty as IBI household and hostess.

Arab women in the age jahilliyah not know "veil" even up to now even the women Arabian desert knows no Hijab. They usually leave the house with her husband's arm flanking the customs of Western people

The hijab is found in the city, the Arabian Peninsula in the city today, even by way of covering her face, or in a way not allowed to leave the house or into the community is a rule which is input by the Turks into the Islamic world, they come to power first period. Hijab is given by the Turkish Islamic style, when in fact he was not the Arab customs and traditions nor Islam.

There is a bad habit, which terkadangdiderita by Arab women, the wives are usually inherited from the father (married by his son) as inherited property. This kind of marriage they named "Zawaju'l maqt" (marriage angry)

However, this habit was not so broke. Usually performed on women who have no children

Meanwhile, historians mamandang this treatment as a result of the marriage system of the Arab nation, the system assumes that marriage is meant to decide the relationship between a woman with a father and his brothers.

Families in the Arab nation is a union whose members support the support, even in the act of justice or injustice. In this case their motto is: "Help your brother, even tortured or abused!"

Thus even though the establishment of two brothers, and between the children or descendants of two brothers, also happens hostility quickly, which causes mencetus flames of war between them. As hostility between the descendants 'descendants Abdud Dar and' Abdu Manaf, whereas 'Abdud Dar and' Abdu Manaf, it is brothers. Both were sons of Qushai. So is the hostility between the descendants of 'Abdu Manaf with Umaiyah Ibnu'Abdu Sham. Similarly, the hostility that arose between the family and the family Abbasid Alawiah when both groups are descendants of 'Abdull Mutthalib ibn Hashim. (Prof. Dr. Syalabi A.)

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